Posted by: Democratic Thinker | October 19, 2009

Welfare—A Failure of Democracy

Commentary

 
Steven Malanga, in the Summer edition of City Journal, reflects on the failure of a democracy that loses its work ethic—as noted by Tocqueville’s Democracy in American. Read excerpt:



STEVEN MALANGA
Whatever Happened to the Work Ethic?
The financial bust reminds us that free markets require a constellation of moral virtues.


Nina Leen/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images
Values like thrift, which remained strong through the 1950s, eventually gave way to a culture of uncontrolled consumption and debt.

In Democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville worried that free, capitalist societies might develop so great a “taste for physical gratification” that citizens would be “carried away, and lose all self-restraint.” Avidly seeking personal gain, they could “lose sight of the close connection which exists between the private fortune of each of them and the prosperity of all” and ultimately undermine both democracy and prosperity.

The genius of America in the early nineteenth century, Tocqueville thought, was that it pursued “productive industry” without a descent into lethal materialism. Behind America’s balancing act, the pioneering French social thinker noted, lay a common set of civic virtues that celebrated not merely hard work but also thrift, integrity, self-reliance, and modesty—virtues that grew out of the pervasiveness of religion, which Tocqueville called “the first of [America’s] political institutions, . . . imparting morality” to American democracy and free markets. Some 75 years later, sociologist Max Weber dubbed the qualities that Tocqueville observed the “Protestant ethic” and considered them the cornerstone of successful capitalism. Like Tocqueville, Weber saw that ethic most fully realized in America, where it pervaded the society. Preached by luminaries like Benjamin Franklin, taught in public schools, embodied in popular novels, repeated in self-improvement books, and transmitted to immigrants, that ethic undergirded and promoted America’s economic success.

(Read complete article at original site)

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